Gene Known function
ACTB Ubiquitously expressed cytoskeletal protein
GAPDH Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: converts D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. Essential in glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism.
YWHAZ Binds to phosphoserine and phosphothreonine-containing proteins, mediating signal transduction.
B2M Serum protein that associates with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain. Involved in antigen presentation to the immune system.
EIF4A2 Subunit of the eIF4F complex; ATP-dependent RNA helices required for mRNA binding to ribosomes.
ATP5beta Subunit of mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase, which catalyses oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
CYC1 Cytochrome c-1: heme-containing component of cytochrome b-c1 complex. Transfers electrons from Rieske protein to cytochrome c in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Table 1: Primary functions of RGs used.