Patients characteristics Men (N=612) Women (N=163) P value
  n (%) n (%)  
Age in years (mean ±SD) 64.4 (±10.5) 69.5 (±10.1) <0.0001
Marital status
Single 18 (2.9) 5 (3.1) <0.0001
Married or co-habiting 520 (85.1) 82 (50.3)  
Divorced/separated 36 (5.9) 14 (8.6)  
Widowed 37 (6.1) 62 (38.0)  
Religiositya
Secular 306 (50.0) 69 (42.3) 0.04
Traditional 19 (32.0) 70 (42.9)  
Religious 96 (15.7) 23 (14.1)  
Other 14 (2.3) 1 (0.6)  
Level of education
Up to 10 years of schooling 195 (32.2) 75 (46.0) 0.004
11-12 years of schooling 181 (29.9) 43 (26.4)  
More than 12 years 229 (37.9) 45 (27.6)  
Employment
Full-time employment 201 (32.8) 20 (12.3) <0.0001
Part-time employment 78 (12.8) 10 (6.1)  
Not employed 333 (54.4) 133 (81.6)  
Income
Above average 141 (23.9) 8 (5.1) <0.0001
Average 190 (32.1) 23 (14.7)  
Below average 260 (44.0) 126 (80.2)  
Behavioural and lifestyle characteristics
Smoking
Never 179 (29.3) 98 (60.1) <0.0001
Pastc 288 (47.1) 46 (28.2)  
Current 144 (23.6) 19 (11.7)  
N (%) of physically activec 251 (41.2) 50 (30.9) 0.02
BMI kg/m2
≥19<25 189 (30.8) 52 (31.7) 0.06
≥25<30 283 (46.1) 61 (37.2)  
≥30 142 (23.1) 51 (31.1)  
Clinical characteristics
N (%) Diabetes 255 (41.7) 74 (45.4) 0.5
N (%) Congestive heart failure 83 (13.5) 33 (20.1) 0.04
aReligiosity in the Israeli Jewish population is conventionally divided into: secular Jews, religious practicing Jews, traditional Jews, and others.
bPast smokers: patients who stopped smoking for at least 6 months before assessment.
cPhysically active: a positive response to the question: “Do you engage in sport or physical activity regularly?”
Table 1: Characteristics of the study sample (N=775) by gender.