Figure 1: The schemes illustrate the main groups of central presympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular neurones and neurondocrine factors involved in the regulation of cardiovascular functions in the healthy subjects (A) and during the post-infarct heart failure (B). Main afferent and efferent pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral organs are shown. The direction of change is indicated by arrows and intensity of change by thickness of the lines. The Figure shows an involvement of key neuropeptides, activation of the presympathetic neurons and inhibition of the parasympathetic neurons in enhancement of cardiovascular responses to stress during post-infarct heart failure.