Author, year, Reference Method of VF initiation/model
Fenton and Karma, 1998 [9] Initial condition in all the simulations was an untwisted scroll wave with a straight filament obtained by stacking along the z-axis identical two-dimensional spiral waves, or identical two-dimensional broken plane waves
Garfinkel, et al. 1992 [30] Ouabain plus or minus epinephrine in arterial perfusate in rabbit hearts
Garfinkel et al. 1997 [31] Ventricular fibrillation was induced by a short burst of 60-Hz alternating current in dog hearts.
Garrey, 1914 [29] Strong faradic shocks in dog hearts. Studied termination of electrically induced VF
Gray et al. 1995 [11] Sustained fibrillation in isolated rabbit hearts
Karma, 1994 [8] Spiral wave breakup after a single spiral wave was initiated from a broken plane wave initial condition in numerical models
Kimura et al. 1986 [20] Runs of extrasystolic impulses induced by premature stimuli (S2) at 10 min of ischemia in perfused cat ventricles.
Kimura et al. 1990 [21] Burst of ectopic activity in isolated cat ventricular myocytes that developed during washout after superfusion with test solution
Moe, 1964 [4] Computer model of hexagonal atrial cells in a flat sheet, paced at 200 Hz to initiate arrhythmias
Panfilov, 1998 [13] Breakup of pre-existing spiral waves in 1000 x 700 element 2D model or 120×120×120 element 3D model
Qu, 2006 [7] Initial conditions of multiple spiral waves were used and randomly perturbed to give rise to nonsustained fibrillation with different durations in a numerical model.
Samie and Jalife, 2001 [2] Transition from VT to VF (a review of many models)
Vaidya et al. 1999 [32] Bipolar pacing at basic cycle lengths (BCLs) of 80 and 120 msec (12 and 8.33 Hz) in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts
Weiss et al. 1999 [3] Transition from VT to VF (a review of many models)
Winfree, 1998 [1] Brief review of many different models and systems used to induce VF electrically for experimental purposes.
Witkowski et al. 1998 [27] Sustained ventricular fibrillation lasting more than 10 minutes was induced with a single critically timed electrical pulse (S2), applied after a constant pacing train (of S1 pulses).
Xu and Guevara, 1998 [5] Rapid pacing for induction of arrhythmias in a computational model of a 2D sheet with small square of regional "ischemia", mimicked as increased extra-cellular potassium ion concentration
Table 1: Partial survey of modes of initiation of ventricular fibrillation in experimental and numerical models.