Parameter Vodka sales Wine sales Beer sales
Model Estim. SE Model Estim. SE Model Estim. SE
Mortality males 0.1.0 0.031** 0.011 0.1.0 0.007 0.012 0.1 0.016 0.052
Mortality females 0.1.0 0.017* 0.01 0.1.0 0.006 0.011 0.1.0 0.045 0.043
Table 1: Estimated beverage-specific effects of alcohol sales on stroke mortality rates. SE, standard error, *p<0.05, **p<0.01. The general form of non-seasonal ARIMA model is (p,d,q), where p: the order of the autoregressive parameter, d: the order of differencing, and q: the order of the moving average parameter. Q test for residuals are satisfactory in all models.