Trial No.of patients Follow up duration (month) Therapeutic intervention Inclusion criteria NYHAclass Primary endpoint Outcomes
CHARM-Preserved [20] 3023 36.6 Candesartan 4-32 mg PO/day Age ≥ 18; LVEF>40% and hospital admission for cardiac reason II-IV CV death or HF hospitalization Candesartan vsplacebo:CV death or HF hospitalization: 22% vs 24% ; HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.77-1.03)
I-Preserve [21] 4128 49.5 Irbesartan 75-300mg PO/day Age ≥60; LVEF ≥45% and symptomatic HF; NYHA class II-IV and hospitalized for HF in past 6 months II-IV Death from any cause or CV hospitalization Irbesartanvs placebo:All-cause mortality or CV hospitalization: 36% vs 37%; HR 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-1.05)
PEP-CHF [22] 850 26.2 Perindopril 2-4 mg PO/day Age ≥ 70; LVEF ≥40%; hospitalized for HF in past 6 months; Diastolic dysfunction on ECHO; Receiving diuretics for CHF I-IV All-cause mortality and HF hospitalization Perindopril vs placebo:All-cause mortality orunplanned HF hospitalization: 23.6% vs 25.1% patients; HR 0.92 (95% CI 0.70-1.21)
RAAM-PEF [23] 44 6.5 Eplerenone 25-50mg PO/day Age ≥18; LVEF≥50%; clinical HF; BNP ≥ 100pg/ml II-III Change in 6 minute walk distance Eplerenonevs placebo: Change in 6MWDEplerenone- 271.4+75.7 m to 310.7+ 89.8 versus Placebo-249.0+66.8 m to 286.3+ 66.7 (p=0.91)
TOPCAT [24] 3445 39.6 Spironolactone 15-45 mg PO/day Age ≥50; LVEF≥45%; hospitalized for HF in past 12 months or elevated BNP in 6 months I-IV CV death; HF hospitalization or aborted cardiac arrest Spironolactone vs placebo: CV death, HF hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest: 18.6% vs 20.4%; HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.77-1.04)
Aldo-DHF [25] 422 11.6 Spironolactone 25mg PO/day Age ≥ 50; LVEF≥55%; ECHO evidence of diastolic dysfunction; peak VO2≤ 25ml/kg/min II-III Change in E/e’, change in peak VO2 Spironolactone vs placebo: Spironolactone - E/e’ 12.7 (SD, 3.6) to 12.1 (SD, 3.7) versus Placebo- E/e’ 12.8 (SD, 4.4) to 13.6 (SD, 4.3) (adjusted Mean difference, -1.5; 95% CI, -2.0 to -0.9; P=0.001). Spironolactone-Peak VO2-16.3 [SD, 3.6] mL/min/kg to 16.8 [SD, 4.6] ml/min/kg versus Placebo -16.4 [SD, 3.5]ml/min/kgto 16.9 [SD, 4.4] ml/min/kg (adjusted mean difference,-0.1 ml/min/kg;95%CI,-0.6 to-0.8 mL/min/kg; P=0.81)
ELANDD [26] 116 6 Nebivolol 2.5-10 mg PO/day Age ≥ 40; LVEF>45%; ECHO evidence of diastolic dysfunction II-III Change in 6min walk distance Nebivololvs placebo: Change in 6MWD Nebivolol- 420±143 meters to 428± 141meters versus Placebo- 412±123 metersto 446± 109 meters (p=0.004)
SENIORS [27] 2128 21 Nebivolol10 mg PO/day Age ≥70; LVEF>35%; hospitalized for HF in past 12 months I-IV Death from any cause or CV hospitalization Nebivololvs placebo:All-cause mortality or CVhospitalization: 29% vs 33.6%; HR 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-1.04);
J-DHF [28] 245 38.4 Carvedilol 1.25-10 mg PO twice/day Age ≥20; LVEF>45%; clinical HF I-IV CV death or unplanned HF hospitalization Carvedilolvs no carvedilol: CV death or unplanned HF hospitalization: 21% vs 24%; HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.55-1.49)
RELAX [29] 216 6 Sildenafil 20 mg PO 3 times/day for 12 weeks, then 60 mg PO 3 times/day for 12 weeks LVEF>50%; Objective evidence of HF; Reduced exercise capacity and either elevated NT-pro BNP or LV filling pressures II-IV Change in peak VO2 Sildenafil vs placebo: Change in peak VO2 Sildenafil (-0.20 [IQR, -1.70 to 1.11] versus Placebo (-0.20 [IQR, -0.70 to 1.00]) (P=.90)
DIG Ancillary [30] 988 37.2 Digoxin 0.125-0.5 mg PO/day (median dose 0.25 mg PO/day) LVEF>45%; Clinical HF and Normal sinus rhythm I-IV HF hospitalization or HF mortality Digoxin vs placebo: HF hospitalization or HF mortality: 23.4% versus 23.4% ; HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.63-1.07);
PARAMOUNT [31] 308 9 LCZ696 titrated to 200 mg twice daily or valsartan titrated to 160 mg twice daily LVEF>45% NT-proBNP >400 pg/ml I-III Change in NT- proBNP at 3 months Ratio of change in proBNP for LCZ696/valsartan 0.77 (P=0.005)
Table 1: Randomized clinical trials of Heart Failure with preserved ejection fraction. CHARM: Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity; I-PRESERVE: Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Study; PEP-CHF: Perindopril in Elderly People with Chronic Heart Failure; RAAM-PEF: Randomized Aldosterone Antagonism in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction; Aldo-DHF: Aldosterone Receptor Blockade in Diastolic Heart Failure; TOPCAT: Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist; ELANDD: Effects of Long-Term Administration of Nebivolol on the Clinical Symptoms, Exercise Capacity, and Left Ventricular Function of Patients with Diastolic Dysfunction; J-DHF: Japanese Diastolic Heart Failure; DIG: Digitalis Investigation Group; RELAX: Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction; PARAMOUNT: Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB on Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction; BNP: Brain Natriuretic Peptide; CHF : Congestive Heart Failure; CI: Confidence Interval; CV: Cardiovascular; DB: Double-Blind; E/E’: Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction; HF: Heart Failure; LV: Left Ventricular; LVEF: Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction; NT-Probnp: NTerminal Brain Natriuretic Peptide Precursor; NYHA: New York Heart Association; Peak VO2: Maximum Exercise Capacity; 6MWD: 6 Minute Walking Distance, Pg: Picogram.