Figure 3: AIF-1 isoform 2 mRNA transcript and the IL-18 analysis in blood specimen and in the biopsy specimen are illustrated in sections (a), (b) and (c). (a): AIF-1 isoform 2 was increased in monocytes versus monocyte depleted PBMCs only in specimens that were presented with grade 3A RE (p<0.001). (b): AIF-1 and IL-18 mRNA transcript levels were highest in the specimens with grade 3A RE. (c): IHC stain with AIF-1 (1 and 2) and IL-18 (3 and 4) shows cross-sectioned CMCs and clusters of infiltrated MNs (40x). 1 is AIF-1 negative control, no IHC signal was seen either in CMCs or MNs. 2 is grade 3A (2R) RE, positive AIF-1 signals wre seen in some CMCs and in a majority of MNs infiltrated in the interstitial area. 3 is a negative control for IL-18 with no RE. 4 is a grade 3A RE, positive IL-18 were present in all infiltrating MNs but not in lymphocytes.