Neonates/ infants

Children

Adults

Intra-observer variability

Inter-observer variability

References

TDI

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kukulski  (18)
Eidem (110)

S’ (basal)

10.2 ± 5.5
PTDI

12.8
(10.7-16.5)
16.1 ±4.7
PTDI

15.2 ± 2.8
PTDI

6.17 (COV)

8.82 (COV)

E’(basal)

13.8 ±  8.2
PTDI

-16.2
(-12.6 to -21.1) PTDI

14.5 ± 3.5
PTDI

2.2% - 3.4%
(mean % difference)

1.6% - 2.0% (mean % difference)

A’(basal)

9.8 ± 2.4
PTDI

-8.6
(-5.5 to -12.1) PTDI

16.2 ± 3.1
PTDI

 

 

Strain

 

 

 

 12.9
(mean % diff)

14.4
(mean % diff)

Weidemann (40)
Pena (42)

Basal

-28.38 ± .90
CTDI

–36 ± 11
CTDI

19±6

NA

NA

Mid

-33.20 ± .34
CTDI

–45 ± 13
CTDI

27±6

NA

NA

Apical

-31.95 ± 5.06
CTDI

–34 ± 11
CTDI

32±6

NA

NA

Strain rate

 

 

 

11.8
(mean % difference)

13.6
(mean % difference)

Weidemann (40)
Pena (42)

Basal

-1.93 ± 0.52 CTDI

–2.4 ± 0.6
CTDI

1.5±0.41

NA

NA

Mid

-1.91 ± 0.45
CTDI

–2.8 ± 0.7
CTDI

1.72±0.27

NA

NA

Apical

-1.81± 0.40
CTDI

–2.5 ± 0.6
CTDI

2.04±0.41

NA

NA

Table 1: Tissue Doppler velocities, strain and strain rate- normal RV value. The values in the table are shown as follows. For each age group the standard deviation (s) was taken to construct ranges of the mean 2s. Abbreviations: A`, peak late diastolic velocity, COV, coefficient of variation; CTDI, color tissue Doppler imaging, E`, peak early-diastolic velocity; NA, not available; PTDI, pulsed tissue Doppler imaging; S`, peak systolic velocity. Copyright from Mertens L et al., Nat. Rev. Cardiol 2010, (doi:10.1038/nrccardio.2010.118) with permission from the publisher, Macmillan Publishers Limited, Copyright approval from Nature Publishing Group.