Cell Type Source/Route Animal Model Findings Reference
ELPC and eNOS transduced ELPCs Bone marrow /  IV MCT When administered 3 days after MCT induced PAH - complete prevention of PAH
3 weeks after injury – prevented further increase in RVSP
ENOS transduced ELPCs - normalized pulmonary hemodynamics and improved survival
Zhao, 2005 – PMID 15692087
Adrenomedullin gene- transduced EPCs Umbilical cord blood/IV MCT Decrease in PVR and mean PAP, inhibition of increase in medial wall thickness Nagaya, 2003 – PMID 12835224
EPC Peripheral blood, culture media/ injection directly into lung parenchyma MCT EPC transplantation in lungs improved mean PAH, arterial pressure, CO, PVR and improved neovascularization Takahashi, 2004 – PMID15265294
CGRP transfected EPCs Peripheral blood/IV Shunt operation – abdominal aorta to IVC Decreased PAH and vascular remodeling Zhao Q, 2007 – PMID17643632
EPCs Peripheral blood/IV Clinical study Increase in mean distance walked in 6 mins  and improvement in mean PAP, PVR and CO Wang XX, 2007 – PMID17418297
Prostacyclin synthase-MSCs Bone marrow/IV MCT Improved PH and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and decreased RVH Takemiya, 2009 – PMID 19838762
MSC Bone marrow/IV MCT Improved right ventricular function, decreased right ventricular peak systolic pressure, pulmonary artery narrowing, alveolar septum thickening and RVH Umar, 2009 – PMID19783775
MSC         MSC       MSC Bone marrow
/Intratracheal       Bone Marrow       Bone Marrow
MCT         Hyperoxia (95% O2)       Hyperoxia (75% O2) Improved endothelium- dependent responses and decreased pulmonary arterial resistance and PVR Attenuated alveolar and vascular lung injury and pulmonary hypertension in neonatal rats   Reduced alveolar loss and prevented pulmonary hypertension in neonatal mice Baber, 2006 – PMID 16980338       Van Haaften, 2009 – PMID 19713449       Aslam M, 2009 – PMID 19713447
eNOS expressing MSCs Bone marrow/IV MCT Improvement in right ventricular impairment, decrease in RVSP, RV/body weight ratio decreased Kanki-Horimoto, 2006 – PMID 16820570
MSC expressing HO-1 transgene Bone marrow/IV Chronic  hypoxia Prevented and reversed PAH, reversed RV hypertrophy and vascular remodeling.
HO-1 prevented against oxidative damage
Liang, 2011 – PMID20957739
MCT =Monocrotaline, RV= Right Ventricle, RVSP= Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure, CO= Cardiac Output, PVR= Pulmonary Vascular Resistance, RVH= Right Ventricular Hypertrophy, PAP=Pulmonary Arterial Pressure, IVC=Inferior Vena Cava, IV=Intravenous
Table 2: Stem/Progenitor cells in Pulmonary Hypertension.