Figure 12: Kaplan Meier curve showing results of a randomized trial of surgical vs medical treatment of adults > 40 years old with ASD2 using a composite endpoint of cardiac - related death, heart failure, pulmonary or systemic embolism, recurrent pulmonary infection, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia and progression of pulmonary hypertension. (Reprinted from Attie et al. [16] with permission).