Study Study population Characteristics N Design Main findings *
Janousek et al.
2001 [84]
Congenital Heart disease   Children with acute post-operative HF with conduction delay 20 Prospective study Beneficial effects. Improvement in hemodynamics (systolic blood pressure)
Dubin et al. 2003 [85] Congenital Heart disease   Chronic RV dysfunction
TOF, aortic stenosis after Ross procedure
7 Prospective
Multipacing sites, conductance catheter
Beneficial effect. Atrioventricular augments RV and systemic performance (↑CI by 17±8%,↑ in RV dP/dt )  
Janousek et al. 2004 [86] Congenital Heart Disease

D-TGA (atrial baffle)        L-TGA

8 Prospective Beneficial effect.  ↑ RVEF by 9.6%, ↓ RVMPI by 7.7%.
Dubin et al. 2005 [87]   Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric CHD and dilated CMP and congenital AV block 103 Multicenter Study (22 centers) Beneficial effects in all 3 groups. Average ↑ in EF 11.9% to 16.1%. Responders had lower baseline EF.
*Unless otherwise specified, the results refer to statistically significant findings (p<0.05). The changes reported refer to relative changes in mean effect size or when indicated by ‡ changes in absolute effect size. Abbreviations as in previous tables. EF indicates ejection fraction, RVMPI indicates RV myocardial performance index
Table 6: Resynchronization therapy in patients with RHF.