Figure 1: Potential contribution of antibodies to neurodegeneration in MS.
Following a pro-inflammatory T-cell response, antibodies to a number of neuronal antigens may contribute to neurodegeneration such as anti-KIR4.1, anti-neurofilament, anti-neurofascin or anti-hnRNP A1-M9 (red). Spastin contains an hnRNP A1 binding site and hnRNP A1 has been shown to bind spastin RNA. Spastin has been shown to contribute to neuronal function at multiple levels including the nucleus/nuclear pore, proteosome, microtubules and endosomes. Anti-M9 antibodies have been shown to alter spastin RNA levels in neurons and may affect spastin function at these sites.