Table 1: A sampling of antibody studies in MS.
I. Myelin:      
Reference MS/CIS Controls Serum CSF Antigen/technology Primary results
Lisak et al. [63] 41 5 ALS; 16 OND (GBS, SSPE); 22 HC IgG ND IMF of myelin in monkey or guinea pig spinal cord. All groups reacted with higher titers than HC. ALS showed greatest immunoreactivity.
Panitch et al. [64] 48 30 SSPE; 12 OND ND IgG MBP. Solid phase RIA. SSPE>MS>OND
Gorny et al. [65] 18 13 SSPE; 22 OND;
7 neurotic
ND IgG MBP. RIA. SSPE (61%) > MS (44%) > OND (31%)
Wajgt and Gorny, [66] 40 40 neurotic ND IgG MBP, MAG. RIA. MS positive: MBP (35%), MAG (70%), both (33%). Neurotic (0%)
Xiao et al. [67] 30 30 OND; 30 HA ND IgG MOG. ELISA. MS (23%); OND (10%), HA (3%)
Reindl et al. [68] 130 32 OIND; 30 ONND; 10 RA IgG IgG MBP. MOG. WB, ELISA. No differences between groups by ELISA. WB highest in OIND; differences between groups not in favor of MS.
Karni et al. [69] 33 sera 31 CSF Sera: 31OND; 28 HC. CSF: 28 OND; 31 HC IgG, IgM, IgA IgG, IgM, IgA MBP, MOG. ELISA. CSF: Abs to MOG, MBP elevated in MS & OND vs. HC. Frequency higher to MOG in MS & OND (not to MBP). Sera: titers elevated in MS vs. ONDs & HC, but frequency similar between groups.
Berger et al. [70] 103 CIS OCB (+) None IgM ND MBP, MOG. WB. MOG/MBP: +/+ (21%); -/- (38%); +/- (41%). 95% of MOG/MBP +/+ had relapse & predicted RRMS (≈100%)
Lampasona et al. [73] 87 12 EC, 47 HC IgG, IgM ND MOG. WB, RBD. No difference between groups.
Mantegazza et al. [74] 262 (175 RR; 44 SP; 43 PP) 131 OND 307 HC IgG IgG MOG (extracellular domain). ELISA. WB. CSF: no differences. Sera: MS (14%); OND (14%); HC (6%). Not specific for MS. CPMS: titer correlates with severity
Lim et al. [78] 47 CIS None IgG, IgM ND MBP. MOG. WB. Abs to MBP/MOG did not predict CDMS
Lalive et al. [80] 92 (35 RR; 33 SP;
24 PP). 36 CIS
37 HC IgG ND MOG (native in transfected human cells) Significant differences between CIS, RR, SP vs. HC, but not PP.
Rauer et al. [75] 45 CIS 56 HC IgM ND MBP, MOG. WB. No increase risk for CDMS. Ab (+) patients developed earlier relapses.
Khalil et al. [77] 28 20 HC IgG, IgM, IgA ND MOG. ELISA. IgM not significant. IgG and IgA significant. High degree of value overlaps between groups.
Kuhle et al. [79] 462 CIS None IgG, IgM ND MBP, MOG. WB. Risk of CDMS not influenced by any combination of positive Abs.
Menge et al. [81] 37 (17 RR;10 SP;
10 PP)
13 HC IgG ND rhMOG ELISA No differences
Greeve et al. [71] 31 CIS None IgM ND MBP, MOG. WB. MOG/MBP: +/+ & +/- greater risk of CDMS than -/-
Tomassini et al. [72] 51 CIS None IgG, IgM ND MBP, MOG. WB. Any positive Ab predicted CDMS by Poser criteria, not McDonald criteria.
Pittock et al. [82] 72 (12 pI; 43 pII,
17 pIII)
None IgG, IgM ND MOG ELISA. WB. No association with CDMS.
Wang et al. [76] 126 252 HC IgG, IgM ND MOG. EBNA. ELISA. 2X increase of MS, but no association after adjustment for EBNA Abs.
Belogurov et al. [83] 26 22 OND, 11 HC IgG ND MBP. MOG. ELISA. MOG & MBP: Significant differences vs. HC, not OND. Only Abs to MBP 43-68, 146-170 distinguished MS from OND.
Hedegaard et al. [84] 17 17 HC IgG ND MBP microsphere. No differences.
Chan et al. [85] 25 patients prior to CIS 21 HC IgG, IgM ND Linear MBP. Linear and native MOG. No association with CIS development.
Tewarie, et al. [86] 77 (37 RR; 27 SP,
13 PP)
26 OND; 9 OIND IgG IgG Myelin No differences
II. Non-myelin:
Rawes et al. [88] 20 17 OND, 13 HC IgG IgG Axolemma enriched fraction (AEF). ELISA Serum & CSF: significant differences in mean absorbance in MS compared to OND, HC. No correlation with myelin Ag
Sadatipour et al. [89] 70 (33 RR; 21 SP,
16 PP)
41 OND, 38 HC Poly-valent Ig ND Gangliosides GM1, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3 Significant differences in GM3: PP, SP compared to RRMS, OND, and HC
Silber et al. [56] 67 (39 RR;18 SP;
10 PP)
40 OND; 21 OIND; 12 HC IgG IgG NF-L, NF-H, tubulin Anti-NF-L antibodies significantly elevated in PPMS and SPMS compared to controls; correlated with EDSS
Eikelenblom et al. [57] 51 MS: 21 RR;
20 SP; 10 PP
None ND IgG NF-L, NF-H Anti-NF-L IgG index correlated with parenchymal fraction, T2 lesion load, T1 lesion load & ventricular fraction
Lily et al. [94] 58 (35 RR (9 benign); 23 SP 12 HC 16 OND IgG, IgM ND SK-N-SH neurons Oligodendrocyte precursor cell lines Only SK-N-SH cells showed differential response between SP (75%) and RR (25%). No differences in OPCs.
Mathey et al. [58] 26 (13 RR;
4 possible, 9 CPMS)
17 OIND 21 HC blood donors IgG ND Neurofascin NF186 (axonal) NF155 (oligodendrocyte) Highest titers: CPMS vs OIND to NF 155, which cross-reacts with NF 186.
Lee et al. [7]

37 (18 RR; 10 SP;
9 PP)

8 HC, 5 AD IgG IgG hnRNP A1–M9 (AA 293-304) WB. Sera: MS (100% (+)); HC (0%); AD (0%). Single positive MS OCB in CSF.
Srivastava et al. [59] 397 329 OND; 59 HC IgG ND KIR4.1 ELISA KIR4.1 (AA 83-120): MS (47%); OND (0.9%), HC (0%).
III. Myelin & non-myelin:
Kanter et al. [128] 16 (8 RR; 8 SP) 11 OND ND IgG, IgM Lipid microarray MS vs OND: sulfatide. 3β-hydroxy-5α-cholestan-15-one, oxidized phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolmine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingo-myelin, lipopolysaccharide, asialo-GM-1. SPMS vs OND: GM1, asialo-GM1.
Ousman et al.[54] 12 RR 12 OND ND IgG, IgM ‘Myelin’ antigen array αB crystallin 21-40; golli-MBP iso J37; MBP; PLP, HSP, amyloid beta 1-12
Quintana et al. [130] 14 RR vs 10 HC. 13 PP vs 12 HC. 37 RR vs 30 SP. See MS/CIS column (left) IgG, IgM ND Tripartite antigen array of CNS, HSP and lipid antigens RR vs HC: CNS & myelin Ags, GFAP, lactocerebroside, beta amyloid. PP vs HC: myelin Ags, beta amyloid, NF-68, superoxide dismutase. PP, SP vs. RR: lower titers to HSP.
Derfuss et al. [55] sera: 56. CSF: 24 (16 CDMS, 8 probable MS) sera: 45 OIND;
12 OND;40 HCCSF: 25 OIND; 35 OND
IgG IgG Contactin-2 (human)/TAG-1 (rat) Sera: no differences between groups. CSF: significance between MS & OIND but not OND. T-cells to TAG-1 with anti-MOG abs required to induce disease.
AA: Aminoacid; Abs: Antibodies; Ag: Antigen; AD: Alzheimer ’s disease; ALS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; CIS: Clinically isolated syndrome; CDMS: Clinically definite multiple sclerosis; CNS: Central nervous system; CPMS: Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis; CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid; EBNA: Epstein Barr nuclear antigen; EC: Encephalitis; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GFAP: Glial fibrillary acidic protein; GBS: Guillain Barre Syndrome; HA: Headache; HC: Healthy controls; hnRNP A1: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1; HSP: Heat shock proteins; IMF: immunofluorescence; iso: isoform; MAG: Myelin associated glycoprotein; MBP: Myelin basic protein; MOG: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; MS: Multiple sclerosis; ND: Not done; NF-L: Neurofilament light chain; NF-H: Neurofilament heavy chain; NF-68: Neurofilament 68; NF 155: Neurofascin 155 kDa; NF 186: Neurofascin 186 kDa; OCB: Oligoclonal bands; OIND: Other inflammatory neurologic disease; OND: Other neurologic disease; ONND: Other non-inflammatory neurologic disease; p: pattern; PP: Primary progressive MS; RA: Rheumatoid arthritis; RBD: Radio-binding assay; rh – recombinant, human; RIA: Radioimmunoassay; RRMS: Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis; SP: Secondary progressive MS; SSPE: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis; TAG-1: Transiently expressed axonal glycoprotein 1; WB: Western blot