Figure 4: The gate theory
Electric pulses to the upper arm, thigh, and soleus muscles induce activation of the inflammation amplifier: chemokine upregulation, opening a gate in the dorsal vessels of the fifth cervical to fifth thoracic (C5-T5), third lumbar (L3), and fifth lumbar (L5) cords, respectively. This effect offers possible targets for the manipulation of immune cell migration in vivo.