Univariable
OR
95% CI Multivariable- Adjusted*
OR
95% CI
Sex        
Female 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref.) -
Male 0.76 0.69-0.84 0.73 0.66-0.81
Age in years        
18-29 0.80 0.72-0.89 0.92 0.82-1.03
30-39 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref) -
40-49 1.10 0.99-1.23 1.00 0.89-1.12
>50 1.23 1.11-1.36 0.99 0.89-1.11
Year of ESRD onset        
1995-1998 0.79 0.70-0.88 0.77 0.69-0.87
1999-2001 0.98 0.88-1.09 0.96 0.86-1.08
2002-2004 1.09 0.99-1.20 1.05 0.94-1.16
2005-2008 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref) -
Medical Insurance        
Private 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref.) -
Medicaid 0.73 0.67-0.81 0.84 0.75-0.94
No insurance 0.38 0.33-0.44 0.45 0.38-0.53
Medicare 1.03 0.92-1.16 1.07 0.95-1.22
Race        
White 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref) -
African American 0.79 0.73-0.85 0.74 0.68-0.82
Asian 1.31 1.11-1.54 1.18 0.99-1.41
Native American 0.96 0.66-1.40 0.89 0.60-1.31
Ethnicity        
Hispanic 0.91 0.82-1.00 0.87 0.77-0.98
Region of Residence        
Northeast 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref) -
West 0.80 0.71-0.91 0.72 0.64-0.83
South 0.71 0.64-0.79 0.78 0.70-0.88
Midwest 0.82 0.73-0.93 0.82 0.72-0.93
Employment at ESRD onset        
Employed 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref) -
Unemployed 0.73 0.66-0.80 0.85 0.76-0.94
BMI (kg/m2)        
Underweight BMI<18 1.10 0.95-1.27 1.16 1.00-1.35
18 -25 1.0 (ref.) - 1.0 (ref) -
Overweight/Obesity BMI>25 0.88 0.82-0.95 0.87 0.80-0.94
Serum albumin (mg/dl)        
≤2.5 0.70 0.64-0.77 0.73 0.66-0.81
2.6-3.2 1.0 (ref) - 1.0 (ref) -
≥3.3 1.43 1.31-1.56 1.35 1.23-1.48
Hemoglobin (mg/dl)        
≤8.5 0.75 0.68-0.83 0.80 0.72-0.88
8.6-10 1.0 (ref) - 1.0 (ref) -
≥10 1.22 1.12-1.34 1.13 1.03-1.24
eGFR (ml/min)        
≤0.0 0.88 0.80-0.97 1.00 0.90-1.10
5.0-10.0 1.0 (ref) - 1.0 (ref) -
≥10.0 0.89 0.81-0.97 0.86 0.78-0.95
Comorbidities        
Hypertension 1.40 1.28-1.53 1.40 1.27-1.54
Coronary artery disease 1.40 1.21-1.62 1.36 1.17-1.60
Peripheral vascular disease 1.31 1.07-1.59 1.31 1.06-1.61
Diabetes mellitus 0.98 0.86-1.12 1.08 0.94-1.23
Congestive heart failure 0.85 0.76-0.94 0.88 0.79-0.99
Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease 0.94 0.74-1.20 0.90 0.70-1.17
Cerebrovascular accident 1.16 0.99-1.37 1.10 0.93-1.31
Current smoking 0.83 0.68-1.00 0.83 0.67-1.02
IV Drug abuse 0.42 0.25-0.71 0.56 0.32-0.97
Cancer 1.28 0.96-1.72 1.22 0.90-1.66
eGFR: Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; ESA: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent; LN: Lupus Nephritis; ESRD: End-Stage Renal Disease; OR: Odds Ratio.
*Multivariable analysis adjusted for all variables in the table.
Table 2: Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors Significantly Associated with ESA use at Onset of ESRD among 12,533 U.S. Patients with LN from 1995-2008.