Parameters All subjects n=100 Active LN n=47 Inactive LN n=53 p value
Female, no. (%) 92 (92) 43 (91.5) 49 (92.5) 0.57
Male, no. (%) 8 (8) 4 (8.5) 4 (7.5)  
Race, no. (%)        
 -Malay 41(41) 24 (51.1) 17 (32.1) 0.14
 -Chinese 55 (55) 21 (44.7) 34 (64.2)  
 -Indian 4 (4) 2 (4.3) 2 (3.8)  
Age, mean ± SD years 36.90 ± 10.62 36.40 ± 9.97 37.33 ± 11.24 0.74
LN duration (years) 7 (1-24) 7 (1-24) 7 (1-17) 0.56
Median (IQR)        
Biopsy-proven LN, no. (%)        
 - WHO class I 1 (1) 1 (2.1) 0 (0)  
 - WHO class II ± V 6 (6) 3 (6.4) 3 (5.7)  
 - WHO class III ± V 34 (34) 15 (31.9) 19 (35.8)  
 - WHO class IV ± V 52 (52) 26 (55.3) 26 (49.1)  
 - WHO class V 5 (5) 1 (2.1) 4 (7.5) 0.71
 - WHO class VI 2 (2) 1 (2.1) 1 (1.9)  
Activity index median (IQR) 8 (0-19) 9 (0-16) 8 (0-19) 0.93
Chronicity index median (IQR) 3 (0-15) 3.58 (0-9) 3 (1-15) 0..55
 CKD stage        
 -Stage 1 (eGFR >90) 61 (61) 25 (53.2) 36 (67.9)  
 -Stage 2 (eGFR 60-89) 22 (22) 10 (21.3) 12 (22.6) 0.06
 -Stage 3 (eGFR30-59) 14 (14)  9 (19.1)  5 (9.4)  
 -Stage 4 (eGFR15-29)  3 (3)  3 (6.4)  0 (0%)  
Continuous variables were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test, and categorical variables by Pearson’s chi-square test. SD: Standard Deviation; IQR: Interquartile Range.
Table 1: Demographic and clinical characteristics of study patients.