Figure 4: Influence of TLR- and NOD-agonists on monocyte IL-10 and IL-1β production in FMF patients. Peripheral blood monocytes were unstimulated (NT) or stimulated either with 2, 5 μg/ml PGN or Pam3CSK4 or 5 μg/ml MDP for 3 days. IL-10 (A) and IL-1β (B) production by monocytes, isolated from ND and FMF patients ws determined by ELISA. To assess the versatility of monocytes activation, unstimulated or stimulated monocytes for 3 days were further incubated with 10 ng/ml IL-4 for an additional 3 days. Cellfree supernatants were decanted and IL-1β (C) and IL-10 (D) concentration in samples were determined by ELISA. All data represent means ± SEM (error bars) and are significantly different comparing FMF with ND (*Pt or Pw<0.05) or comparing with NT (# Pp<0.05).