Figure 5: Influence of TLR- and NOD-agonists, colchicine and IL-4 on monocyte IL-1β production and endotoxin tolerance induction in FMF patients (A) and ND (B). Monocytes were pretreated with 100 ng/ml LPS or either with 2 μg/ml colchicine or 2.5 μg/ml PGN or 5 μg/ml MDP or 10 ng/ml recombinant IL-4 for 18 h, washed with LPS-free PBS and cultured for an additional 4 h in the presence of 1 μg/ml LPS. The production of IL-1β monocytes was subsequently assayed by ELISA. All data represent means ± SEM (error bars) and are significantly different comparing FMF with ND (*Pt or Pw<0.05, ** Pt<0.002) or comparing pretreatment with LPS re-stimulation pairs (# Pp<0.05).