Figure 2: Molecular imaging targets and probes to visualize damage caused by neuroinflammation. Neuronal damage and demyelination are hallmarks of neuroinflammation. Injured neurons express phophatidylserine, which can be targeted by annexin-V. Caspases are key mediators of neuronal apoptosis, while Aposense agents enter dying cells that have lost integrity of their membranes. GABAa-receptor expression has been established as a marker for neuronal integrity. The myelin sheath around axons is electrically insulating and allows for fast signal transmission. Several different agents have been demonstrated to specifically bind to myelin, thus allowing for assessment of demyelination in neuroinflammation. FL: Fluorescence imaging (Adapted from Servier Medical Art).