Figure 10: Molecular imaging of neuronal death. (A) PET-MR fusion imaging of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease using 11C-flumazenil. Regions with decreased tracer binding are shown in red on brain surface images, and yellow-red on axial images, and correspond to regions with greatest degree of neuronal loss in neuropathological studies. (B) In vivo and ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence annexin A5 imaging of ischemic stroke mice. Strong fluorescence is seen over the ischemic hemisphere only after injection of active Cy5.5-annexin A5. (C) In vivo and ex vivo imaging of mice with TBI using GSAO-AF750 or a nonspecific control probe. Specific uptake is seen in the damaged brain region. (D) PET using 18F-ML-10 to detect cell death in stroke mice in vivo demonstrates tracer uptake in the ischemic hemisphere. (Modified from Pascual et al. [233], Bahmani et al. [242], Xie et al. [250] and Reshef et al. [248] with permission.)