Figure 3: VSL#3-induced changes in cytokine secretion by M1 and M2 macrophages. Levels of IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B), IL-10 (C), IL-12p70 (D), IL-23 (E), and TNF-α (F) were measured using a multiplex assay. Samples of supernatant were taken after 18-hour exposure to polarizing factors (day 8) and subsequent 3-day culture in the presence or absence of the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (day 11). Dashed lines indicate that levels were below or above the limits of detection. Each data point represents the mean ± SE of two pooled samples.* denotes a statistically significant difference in the mean change in cytokine and chemokine secretion (ΔCCS) of the treated macrophage vs. the untreated macrophage type, calculated as indicated in the methods section.