Figure 1: Increased Th1 and inflammatory cytokines in premalignant lesion tissue compared to levels in normal or HNSCC tissues. Normal oral tissues, premalignant lesions or HNSCC tissues were homogenized and used to measure cytokine levels using CBA. Plasma from these same patients was also analyzed for cytokine levels by CBA. Cytokine levels in tissues were standardized to levels of protein. Shown are means + SE from at least 10 patients per group. *p<0.05; **p<0.01.