Figure 2: Increased Th1 and inflammatory cytokines in premalignant lesion tissues and regional lymph nodes of mice with premalignant lesions. Normal oral tissues, premalignant lesions or HNSCC tissues were homogenized and used to measure cytokine levels using CBA. Regional lymph nodes from these same mice were also homogenized by sonication and analyzed for cytokine levels by CBA. Cytokine levels in tissues were standardized to levels of protein. Shown are means + SE from at least 3 mice per group repeated 4 times. *p<0.05; **p<0.01.