Figure 2: An intimate relationship of inflammation and chronic diseases and the role of spices and spice-derived nutraceuticals in their treatment.Life style risk factors such as high fat diet, tobacco, environmental pollution, stress, radiation and infection induce inflammation through activation of inflammatory transcription factors including NF-κB. NF-κB further activates various proinflammatory cytokines including interleukins, TNF-α, COX-2,5-LOX, CRP and PSA. Interleukins, specifically IL-6, activates another transcription factor STAT3. Persistent activation of NF-κB and STAT3 leads to development of various chronic diseases. However, dietary spices could prevent development of chronic diseases by blocking activation of proinflammatory transcription factors and cytokines.