Gr1highCD11b+ cells Gr1lowCD11b+ cells
Expression levels (spleen) Elevated in males 4-26 weeks of age Elevated in females (>9 wks)
Immunosuppressive in vitro Yes (females only <16 wk) Yes (females only <9 wk)
Cellular target B cell differentiation T cell differentiation and proliferation
Cell-Cell contact No (males); Yes (females) ns*
Effector mechanism Unknown (males); ROS/NO (females) ns*
Immunostimulatory in vitro No Yes (female ≥ 9wk old; males >16 wk old)
Cellular target n/a B cell differentiation and T cell proliferation
  All Gr1+ cells
Immunosuppressive in vivo Yes (males) No (females ≥ 9 wks of age)
Cellular target GC reaction via control of TFH cell differentiation (males) n/a
*ns: not studied; n/a: not applicable [13,28]
Table 1: Neutrophil-like cells differ in numbers and functions between protected males and disease-prone females in (NZB x NZW)F1 lupus mice.