Renal lymphatics within the normal kidney run in proximity to larger vessels. Their number decreases in the outer cortex. Glomerula and normal medulla do not contain lymphatics
Pro-lymphangiogenic factors are expressed by infiltrating mononuclear cells and tubuloepithelial cells
Models of renal fibrosis and data from human renal diseases illustrate neolymphangiogenesis in progressive renal diseases
Lymphangiogenesis in renal allografts might be detrimental, whereas in other chronic kidney diseases the functional role remains to be defined
A booming area of studies is the interaction between pro-lymphangiogenic factors and fibrogenic growth factors
Studies are needed concerning the therapeutic impact of the blockade of lymphangiogenesis in models of renal disease and renal allograft rejection
Table 1: Take home points.