Figure 3: Macrophage infiltration in T2D. In early stage of T2D a predominately M1-like macrophage accumulation occurs in the islets of Langerhans. This M1-like subset secretes inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β leading to a low-grade inflammation within the islets. During disease development, the macrophage population switch phenotype towards an M2-like subset producing significantly enhanced levels of TGF-β and galectin-3 which is thought to participate in the β-cell apoptosis and tissue remodeling.