Figure 4: Macrophage infiltration in the diabetic kidney. In early stages of DN the macrophage subset within the kidneys is primarily M1-like CD11c high macrophages. These M1-like macrophages secrete IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α which contribute to the renal injury. Established chronic DN is characterized by a re-polarization of the macrophages towards a mix between M1/M2 macrophages showing reduced expression of CD11c and enhanced TGF-β and galectin-3 expression.