Figure 2: Macrophage polarization in the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. M1 polarization is associated with Th1 cytokine secretion and increased expression of iNOS, NADPH, MHC-class II, CD86, AP-1, and NK-κB, in addition to that of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, NO, ROS, IL-12, and IL-1β, resulting in tissue damage and parasite killing (Left panel). M2 macrophages are related to tissue remodeling, encapsulation of parasite, Th2 cytokine secretion, which improves the expression of CD36, CD163, MR (mannose receptor), AMPK, Arg1, PPARs, and STAT6, in addition to improving IL-10 and TGF-β expression and polyamine secretion (Right panel). T. cruzi macrophage infection increases the expression of CD64, CD80, NADPH, COX2, iNOS, NF-κB, STAT6, CD200, CD206, CD16, and CD32, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-1β, IL-6, NO, and ROS, which promotes parasite elimination, and secretion of IL-10, TGF-β, and PGE2, critical for immunoregulation and reduction of tissue damage resulting from excessive stimuli (Lower panel).