Immunological assay Main results Reference
Plasma cytokines
(ELISA)
Higher IL-6 level in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS individuals [37]
Cell phenotyping
(WB, flow cytometry)
Increased TNF, IL-6, IL-1b, IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 levels and high frequency of activated CD4+ T-cells in TB-IRIS patients [18]
Cell phenotyping
(WB, flow cytometry)
Similar frequencies of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and CD4+ Treg cells among TB-IRIS and non-IRIS individuals [20]
Cell phenotyping
(PBMC, flow cytometry)
Higher frequency of activated CD4+ T-cells and CD4+ Treg cells (CD25+CD127low and CTLA-4+) in TB-IRIS patients compared to healthy individuals. [30]
Cell phenotyping
(WB, flow cytometry)
Lower frequency of TCRgd and Vd2+ T cells expressing CD94/NKG2 and CD158ah,b in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS individuals. [22]
Plasma cytokines
(flow cytometry and ELISA)
Increased IL-18 and CXCL10 levels and decreased CCL2 in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS individuals. [19]
Plasma cytokines
(ELISA)
At baseline, higher TNF and IL-10 levels in TB-IRIS patient compared to non-IRIS individuals. Higher IFN-γ levels in TB-IRIS patients after HAART compared to baseline. [34]
Plasma cytokines
(Luminex technology)
Higher frequency of activated NK cell and C-reactive protein, IL-8, EGF, and HGF levels in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS patients. [24]
Cell phenotyping
(whole blood, flow cytometry)
Higher expression of TLR2 on mDC and monocytes of TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS individuals [35]
Cytokines
(RT-PCR)
Increase quantity of  IL-2, IL-5, IL10, IL-12p40, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, TGF-b, and TNF transcripts in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS individuals [23]
Cell phenotyping
(WB, flow cytometry)
Expansion of central memory CD4+ T-cells following HAART. [25]
Cytokines levels
(CSF, flow cytometry)
Higher TNF, IFN-g and IL-6 levels in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS individuals [27]
Table 3: Cytokine and phenotypic profile of patients with TB-IRIS evaluated ex vivo.