Significant overlaps in MS and CFS/ME
Symptomatic similarities Disabling fatigue with chronic course, and relapsing-remitting nature
Muscle symptoms: exercise intolerance, pain/myalgia, fasciculations
Gastrointestinal dysfunction
Brain and CNS symptoms: mental fatigue, cognitive dysfunction (problems with short-term memory, concentration and mainaining attention), disequilibrium, word finding disabilities, headaches and migraines
Abnormalities in immune system function: sore throats, joint pains, intermittent flu-like feelings
Problems related with control of the autonomic nervous system: palpitations, postural hypotension
Disease exacerbated by stress and psychological stress
Similarities in immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative pathways Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O+NS)
Depressed levels of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (Vitamin E, ubiquinone, gluthatione peroxidase)
Chronic activation of immunoinflammatory pathways
Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α,IL-1, IL-6)
COX2 and NFkB upregulation
T regulatory (Treg) dysfunction.
Coesistence of a T helper (Th)1 and Th2 response
Similarities in autoimmune responses Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O+NS)
Depressed levels of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (Vitamin E, ubiquinone, gluthatione peroxidase)
Chronic activation of immunoinflammatory pathways
Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6).
Detection of autoantibodies (anti-nuclear, anti-cardiolipin, anti-phospholipid, anti-neuronal, anti-muscle)
IgM responses against palmitic and oleic acids
Antibodies against byproducts of lipid peroxidation
Response to B-cell depression treatment (e.g. Rituximab)
Table 1: Main similarities between MS and CFS/ME.