Anti-CTLA-4 therapies
Shift in intra-tumoural CD8/Treg ratio [34]
Increase in circulating ICOS+ CD4+ effector T cells [41]
Increase in Granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells [42]
Rise in absolute lymphocyte count [48,49]
Baseline FoxP3 and IDO expression [44]
Baseline ‘immune active’ tumour microenvironment [66]
CTLA-4+ CD4+ effector T cells [49]
EOMES+ CD8+ T cells [50]
Baseline circulating monocytic MDSCs [51]
Reduction in monocytic MDSCs in periphery and tumour [52]
Baseline serum VEGF [58]
Baseline serum LDH [53]
Maintenance of high frequency T cell clones in periphery [68]
Neo-antigenic repertoire [71]
Anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 therapies
Tumour PD-L1 expression [3,6,8,12,13,84-86]
Tumour infiltrating immune cell PD-L1 expression [83]
Increased tumouralIFN╬│, Granzyme-A, CD8, EOMES and CX3CL1 gene expression [90]
Increased CD8+PD-1+PD-L1+ cell density within tumour and at invasive tumour margin [84]
Increased clonality and reduced diversity of intra-tumoural T cell repertoire [84]
Higher somatic mutational burden and neo-antigenic repertoire [92]
Table 1: Candidate biomarkers of response to immune modulatory therapy.