%Change in NKCC [Treatment] CFS Case Definition Number of Patients and Controls Studied Comments Reference
↑ 47.3 % (mean) [rIFN-α-2a] in vivoa 1988 CDC CFS: 30 patients started IFN-α, 4 ptsdiscontinueda, 26 were evaluated for NKCC 3 E:T ratios 20:1, 10:1, and 5:1 used in a 51Cr release assay, K562=target [44]
↑ 87% (mean) [extracts of Panax ginseng] in vitro 1988 CDC CFS: 20 NC: 20 51Cr release assay, K562=target [31]
↑ 147% (mean) [extracts of Echinacea purpurea] in vitro 1988 CDC CFS: 20 NC: 20 51Cr release assay, K562=target [31]
↓ 22.3% CFS (mean) ↑ 45.8% NC (mean) [L-arginine] in vitro 1988 CDC CFS: 20 NC: 21 LDHb release assay instead of 51Cr, K562=target [45]
↑ ~114% (mean) [Glyconutrients] in vitro 1988 CDC CFS: 91c NC: 30 Target cell= (HHV-6)-infected H9 cells, 4 E:T ratios 40:1 to 5:1 used in a 51Cr release assay [24]
↑ 223% (median) in 6 of 10 clinically improved patients [Isoprinosine] in vivo 1988 and 1994 CDC Isoprinosine treated CFS: 10 Placebo treated CFS: 6 ↑ 33% (median) in 4 non-clinically improved CFS pts, 51Cr release assay, K562=target [41]
↑ 178% (mean) ↑ 100% (median) [rintatolimod] in vitro 1988 and 1994 CDC CFS: 15 E:T ratio 12.5:1, flow cytometry assay, K562=target, mean age = 47.5 and median age = 46.0 years, 67% were female Hemispherx Unpublished Data
NC = Normal Controls
a3 million units of rIFN- α-2a was given 3 times/week SQ. Four CFS patients discontinued early because of IFN toxicity: neutropenia (2), palpitations (1), worsened fatigue (1). In addition, 15 patients reported significant flu-like symptoms (4), new onset diarrhea (2), and hair loss (9). NKCC data was obtained from Figure IA.
bLactate dehydrogenase
cSubset of CFS patients meeting the CDC 1988 CD, but with lower levels of CD5, CD8, and CD11a mononuclear cell membrane receptors.
Table 4: Studies investigating therapeutic approaches for augmentation of NK cell cytotoxicity in CFS.