1 ↑ NE release and availability
2 LO specific change in NE content
3 Sympathetic nerve neuropathy with subsequent nerve remodeling in splenic white pulp
4 Aberrant innervation of the red pulp, a site where activated immune cells (e.g., plasma cells) reside
5 Loss of neurotrophic factors in secondary lymphoid tissues
6 β2-AR down-regulation and desensitization (PBMCs, spleen cells, and synovial immune lymphocytes)
7 Shift in β2-AR signaling pathways activated (lymph nodes that drain the arthritic joints)
8 Shift in β2-AR signaling pathways activated (lymph nodes that drain the arthritic joints)
β2-AR: β2-Androgenic Receptor; LO: Lymphoid Organ; NE: Norepinephrine; PMBC: Peripheral Mononuclear Cells; SNS: Sympathetic Nervous System
Table 1: Changes in SNS-Immune System Transmission.