Descriptive Patients Controls Significance (P-value)
  Number (%) Number (%)  
Total 70 (100%) 50 (100%) >0.05
RA 30  
SLE 30  
AS 10  

Gender

Females 43 (61.4%) 25 (50%) >0.05
Males 27 (38.6%) 25 (50%)
Smoking History
Smoker 19 (27.1%) 30 (60%) >0.05
Non-smoker 51 (72.9%) 20 (40%)

Age (years)

Range 14-70 17-61 >0.05
Mean ± SD 39.64 ±12.67 40.05 ± 13.25

ESR

Range 8-95 mm/hour 8-41 mm/hour 0.001*
Mean ± SD 49.81 ± 22.34 24.05±10.38

Disease Status

Active 27 (38.6) - -
Inactive 43 (61.4)
Table 1: Demographic and clinical features of the study population.