Treg cells are involved in immunity tolerance, whereas Th17 cells are involved in inflammatory pathophysiology, such as autoimmune pathophysiology. Treg cells are also functionally reciprocal T cell populations. However, some commonalities have been observed in the differentiation mechanisms of Treg and Th17 cells, such as the involvement of TGF-β-induced differentiation. As shown, many factors reportedly control Treg/Th17 differentiation. If it is possible to control this positive/negative immune response balance, it may also be possible to control various immune diseases.
Figure 1: Treg cells and Th17 cells.