Marker category Sample type Type of molecule Name
Diagnosis+Disease activity CSF [42,38,56] Antibody Anti-hnRNPs
Protein 14-3-3' protein
Metabolite Fetuin A
Disease activity CSF [5,37,38,41,43-47] Antibody Anti- Neuro filaments
Ig kappa light chains
Oligo Clonal Bands
Protein Amyloid beta 42 (+)
S100 protein (+)
alpha-Internexin (+)
Neurofilaments (+)
p-Tau and Tau (+)
Gab-43 (+)
GFAP (+)
IL6 (+)
NCAM (+)
Neurofilaments (+)
Amino Acid NAA (+)
Metabolites and others Pentosidine (+)
Bri2-23 (+)
24S-OH-chol (+)
Myoinositol (+)
CSF and brain tissue [27] Protein and mRNA Osteopontin (OPN/ETA) (+)
Brain tissue [22,27] miRNA and mRNA hsa-miR-34a (+)
alpha B-Crystallin (+)
PGDS (+)
Leptin (+)
ACTH receptor (+)
Prostatic Binding Protein (+)
(+)=Expression upregulated
Table 2: Selection of putative biomarkers within the CNS.