Marker category Sample type Type of molecule Name
Diagnosis Serum/plasma Antibody [57,91,92] Nuclear antigens Anti-Neurofascin
Anti-GAD anti β-arrestin
Anti-KIR4.1  
Protein [37] pNF-H (+)  
Cellular [93,94] plasma endothelial microparticles (+)  
miRNA [90] hsa-miR-1826 (+) hsa-miR-572 (+)
hsa-miR-1979 (-) hsa-miR-614 (+)
hsa-miR-22 (+) hsa-miR-648 (+)
Serum and PBMC miRNA [25,90] hsa-miR-422a (+)  
PBMC miRNA [25-27,71,72,89] hsa-miR-19b (CD4+CD25+ cells) (+) hsa-miR-17-5p (+)
hsa-miR-25 (CD4+CD25+ cells) (+) hsa-miR-18-5p (+)
hsa-miR-1275 (+) hsa-miR-186-5p (-)
hsa-miR-145-5p (+) hsa-miR-20a-5p (+)
hsa-miR-491-5p (+) hsa-miR-20b-5p (+)
hsa-miR-584-5p (+) hsa-miR-223-3p (+)
hsa-miR-664-3p (+) hsa-miR-142-3p (+)
mRNA [1] ATP7A (-) OGT (+)
CCL3 (-) PLAUR (-)
EIF4A1 (-) PTGS2 (+)
HSPA1A (-) RBBP6 (+)
NEAT1 (+) ZMYND8 (+)
Disease activity and manifestation Serum Antibody [5,91] Anti-EBNA IgG  
Anti-gangliosides  
Anti-CD46 and 59  
Protein [5] C4 fragment (+) TIMP1 (-)
MMP8 (+) complement factor H (+)
PBMC Protein [5] CCR5 (+) CXCR3 (+)
CNTF (+) ICAM (+)
CX3CR1 (-) LFA1 (+)
CXCL12 (+) BDNF (+; recov.)
CXCL8 (+)  
Cellular [5] CD56 bright NK cells (+) K2P5+T cells (+)
CD8+CD25+FoxP3+Treg cells (+) PD1/PDL1 (+)
CD80 (+) Fas/FasL
mRNA [5] ILT3 (-; mono.)  
miRNA [25,71,72] hsa-miR-18b (+)  
hsa-miR-599 (+)  
hsa-miR-96-5p (+; remission)  
Disease activity and treatment response Serum Protein [5] MMP9 (+)  
Serum Protein [5] IFNR-gb (+)  
VLA4 (-)  
Cellular [5] Survivin (+)  
cellular and SNP [5] CD86 (+; GA)  
miRNA [67] hsa-miR-146a (+; GA)  
Treatment response to IFN beta, if not stated otherwise: Serum Antibody [5,35,84-86] Anti IFN-Nab or IFN binding Abs  
PBMC Protein [35,77] IFN-γ (-; resp.)  
p-IFNAR (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)  
p-STAT1 (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)  
Protein and mRNA [5,35] IL8 (+; resp.)  
Cellular [5,78,80] IFNR-a2 (+; generell)  
PDL2 (+; generell)  
Th17 cells (+; non-resp.; T0)  
mRNA [7,8,16,35,68,70,78,87] CA11 (+; non-resp.; T0) FADS1 (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
CA2 (+; non-resp.;T0) IFI44 (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
Casp10 (+; non-resp;T0.) IFIT1 (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
DNM1 (+; non-resp.;T0) IFIT2 (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
Flip (+; non-resp.;T0) IFIT3 (+; resp;3 Mo; mono..)
GPR3 (+; non-resp.;T0) MARCKS (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
IL17RA (+; non-resp.;T0) OASL (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
IL17RC (+; non-resp.;T0) RASGEF1B (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)
RRN3 (+; non-resp.;T0)  
YEATS2 (+; non-resp.;T0)  
mRNA combinations [87] Casp2+Casp10+FLIP (+; non-resp.)
Casp2+Casp10+FLIP (+; non-resp.)
(+)=expression upregulated; (-)=expression downregulated; (+; GA)=upregulated in response to GA; (-; resp.)=downregulated to therapy response; (+; non-resp.; T0)=upregulated in non-resonders to IFN beta before therapy; (+; resp.;3 Mo; mono.)=upregulated in responders to IFN beta after 3 month of therapy onset in monocytes
Table 4: Selection of blood biomarkers in MS.