Figure 1: Inhibition of bacterial resistance to host AMPs: A. Bacterial pathogens have developed the ability to resist the antimicrobial activities of AMPs. For example, bacterial omptin proteases (orange pacman) degrade and inactivate AMPs (long black helices) produced by epithelial cells into inactive fragments (short black helices). B. Therapeutic approaches such as treatment with a bi-therapy consisting of an inhibitor of AMP bacterial resistance (e.g. omptin protease inhibitor) and an inducer of AMP production (e.g. vitamin D3 or butyrate) are likely to increase the local concentration of AMPs and, in turn, promote both bactericidal and immunomodulatory activities [e.g. production of interleukin 8 (IL-8)].