Effector molecule Activated by Mode of action Effect on apoptosis
NEMO TNF-a, IL-1b NF-kB activation á
PUMA NFκB/TNF-α TNF-induced disturbance of IEC integrity á
GBP-1 IFN-γ Stabilization of intercellular junctions â
ErbB4 TNF-α, TACE Akt phosphorylation â
Dkk-1 IFN-γ Antagonization of Wnt/β-catenin pathway á
GCC enterotoxins conversion of GTP to cGMP, Akt inhibition â
PHD hypoxia degradation of HIFs, hydroxylation of IKK-β á
HIFs hypoxia induction of a stabilizing gene expression profile â
sphingomyelin sphingomyelinase caspase activation, Bcl2 inactivation á
phosphatidylcholine   inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines â
Table 1: Summary of the described effector molecules and the mechanisms through which they regulate IEC apoptosis.