Figure 2: Hsps in the adaptive and innate immune responses. The localization specific expression of Hsps functions differently in activating or inhibiting the immune responses. Cytosolic Hsps are majorly involved in binding and presentation of antigenic peptides to Class I or Class II MHC molecules and also to DCs. The surface expressed or extracellulary transported Hsps from dead (necrotic/apoptotic) or damaged cells activate/inhibit the innate immune system.