Immunostimulant Species Administration and dose Length of administ-ration Mechanism of
action/results
References
β-1,3 glucans Carp i.p; 2-10 mg kg-1 BW 12 days ↑ phagocytic activity of  kidney leucocytes [152]
  Channel
catfish
Injected; 50 and 70 μg
fish-1 (100 g BW)
suspended in 0.2 ml PBS
2 weeks ↑ phagocytic, bacterial activity
and serum antibody concentration
[153]
  Marron 0.08, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and
0.8 % supplementations
12 weeks ↑ haemocyte count
→ on physiological parameters
[154]
β-glucan Atlantic
halibut
(larvae)
Immersion (25 mg l-1) 5 days Absorbed laminaran [155]
  Carp i.p (10 mg kg-1) 15 days ↑ superoxide dismutase and
catalase activities
[156]
  Coho i.p (5 and 15 mg kg-1) 36 days → immune response [157]
  Trout Oral 4 weeks ↑ stress resistance [158]
  Turbot Oral (2 g kg-1) 5 weeks ↑ leukocyte number [159]
  Trout i.p 18 days ↑ resistance to IHNV [39]
  Trout Oral (0, 0.2 and 0.4 %) 37 days ↓ expression of genes involved
In acute inflammation reaction
[160]
  Sea bass Oral (2% wet body weight) 2 weeks ↑ complement activation [161]
  Sea bass Oral (0.1%) 60 days ↑ serum complement activity, serum lysozyme, gill and liver HSP [162]
  Sea bass Oral (250, 500, 1,000 ppm) 25 days ↑ respiratory burst activity
 of head kidney macrophages
[163]
  Snapper Oral (10g kg-1) 84 days ↑ macrophage superoxide Anion production and growth
→ complement activity
[164]
  Tilapia and
Japanese eels
i.p (10 mg kg-1) 2 days ↑ lysozyme activity, phagocytic
activities in anterior kidney and
peripheral blood phagocytes
and classical complement path-
way
[165]
  Nile
tilapia
Oral 6 weeks ↑ stress resistance [166]
  Red drum Oral (2% of diet) 6 weeks → on stress resistance [124]
  Flounder Oral (3 g kg-1) n.i ↑ respiratory burst activity [167]
  Channel
catfish
Oral (1g/kg) 4 and 6
weeks
→ growth performance hematology or immune function Some improvement in stress resistance [168]
  Climbing
perch
Β-glucan suspension
(0, 5, 10 15 mg l-1)
7 days ↑ lysozyme and bactericidal activities and survival of spawns immersed in 15 mg l-1 when challenged with A. hydrophila [169]
  American
White
shrimp
Immersed 120 hours ↑ total haemocyte counts and soluble haemocyte protein after 48-120 hours [170]
  Shrimp Oral (0.2% w/w) 7 days ↑ prophenoloxidase and reactive oxygen intern- mediate activity [171]
  White
shrimp
Oral (2000 mg kg-1) 6 weeks ↑ total haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase, superoxide anion and superoxide dismu- tase until day 27 [172]
  Carpet shell
clam
i.v
(0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg ml-1)
Different
sampling
times
↑ nitric oxide production Hemolymph treated with β-glucan inhibited growth of Vibrio algynolyticus, Vibriosplendidus and Escherichiacoli [173]
  Scallop i.p 7 days ↑six enzymes in haemocytes. β-glucan-induced activation was stronger at 15˚C than 25˚C . [174]
β-glucan + mannose Snapper Oral (0.1-1.0% w/w) n.i
in vitro
study
↑ macrophage activation [175]
β-glucan + LPS Salmon 10 μg ml-1 n.i
in vitro
study
↑ lysozyme activity [176]
β-1,3 and β-1,6
glucans
Sea urchin
eggs
0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5
and 1.0 mg ml-1
Incubation ↑ survival of embryos [177]
β-1,3 and β-1,6
inked yeast glucan
(M-glucan)
Salmon Injected i.p (1 ml of
0.5% (w/v) M-glucan
in 0.9% saline)
22 days ↑ macrophage and neutrophil numbers, head kidney macrophages and ability to kill A. salmonicida [178]
  Salmon 0, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 70 days → no detrimental effect ↓lice- infected fish when the fish were fed 14 % soybean meal + 14 % sunflower and
yeast extract
[179]
  Trout Injected i.p 1 ml of 1%
M-glucan suspension
3 weeks   ↑macrophages ability to kill A. salmonicida and serum lysozyme activity [180]
β-1,3 glucan from
Schizophyllum
commune
Black tiger
shrimp
Oral (0 and 2 g kg-1) 40 days ↑ survival, haemocyte activity, cell adhesion and superoxide anion production [181]
Glucan (barley
extract (Sigma)
Trout Injected i.p. 100 μg
glucan dissolved in
PBS. Immersed the
concentration of
100 μg ml-1 glucan for
30 min
10 days ↑ phagocytic activity and numbers of circulatory glass-adherent cells [182]
Yeast glucan Salmon i.p 20 days ↑ resistance to V. anguillarum, V. salmonicida and Y. rückeri [183]
  Salmon i.p 4 weeks ↑ complement and lysozyme activity [184]
  Salmon i.p (0.5 mg/fish) 43 weeks ↑ survival against A. salmonicida infection [185]
  Salmon i.p 7 weeks ↑ antibody
→ resistance to A. salmonicida
[186]
  Salmon Oral and anal (150 mg
kg-1)
2 days ↑ acid phosphatase [187]
  Trout i.p n.i ↑ lysozyme activity [188]
  Trout Diet
(0, 0.125 and 0.25 g k-1)
4 + 4 weeks 4 weeks
↑ survival and growth
4 – 8 weeks
↑ survival (0.25 g k-1)
→ feed conversion
[189]
  Indian major
carp
  15 + 30 days ↑ superoxide anion, in vitro phagocytic activity and nitrite production of leucytes (10 days)
→ heamatocrit
[190]
  Indian major
carp and rohu
Diet (0 and 5 g kg-1) 15 + 20 days ↑ phagocytosis and prolifer- ation of lymphocytes and oxidative radical and nitrate production [191]
  Pacu Diet (2.5 and 5 %) 86 days ↑ feed efficiency
→ plasma glucose and cortisol
[192]
  Fathead
minnows
Diet (10 g kg-1) 14 days ↑ degranulation of primary granules in fish neutrophils [193]
  Shrimp immersion 43 days ↑ growth at 0.5; 1 and 2 mg ml-1, but not at 0.25 mg ml-1
↑ phenoloxidase activity and
resistance to V. vulnificus
[194]
  Black tiger
shrimp
Oral (0.2 %) 3 days ↑ phenoloxidase, no. of haemocytes and bacterial killing activity against Vibrio
harveyi
[195]
  Pacific white
shrimp
Oral (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1) 4 weeks ↑ total haemocyte – and
granular haemocyte counts
→ growth
[196]
Yeast glucan +
Vitamin C
Trout Diets containing yeast
glucan and vitamin C
at 150, 1,000 and
4,000 p.p.m
4 weeks ↑ alternative pathway of complement – and macrophage activity and
specific Ab response following vaccination with Y. ruckeri
[197]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sea bass Diet (0, 10, 20, 30 and
40 %)
12 weeks ↑ feed conversion (10, 20 and 30 %), N retention (% N intake)
→ growth and energy retention (% E intake)
[198]
  Sea bream 0 and 10g kg-1 6 weeks ↑ serum peroxidases and complement activity [199]
  Sea bream In vitro experiment, head kidney leucocytes 0 – 30 min ↑ degranulation [200]
  Sea bream 0, 1, 5 and 10g kg-1 6 weeks ↑ total serum IgM level [201]
  Sea bream In vitro experiment, blood leucocytes 30 min ↑ inhibition of the phagocytic ability [202]
  Sea bream 0, 11.5 and 23 % (Y2) 10 weeks ↑ growth, feed intake, lipid content (Y2) and arginase activity
→ body composition
[203]
  Gilthead seabream Lyophilised S. cerevisiae (0, 1, 5 or 10g kg-1) 4 weeks ↑ cellular parameters [204]
  Gilthead seabream S. cerevisiae (0, 10, and 20 %) (BDY protein) instead of fish meal 12 weeks → growth, alkaline phospha-tase, blood urea Nitrogen, serum protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and amylase
↓ plasma glucose (10 % BDY)
[205]
  Nile tilapia Diet (0 and 0.1 %) 9 weeks ↑growth and feed efficiency [206]
  Nile tilapia S. cerevisiae(0, 25, 50, 75
and 100 %) (BDY protein) instead of soy bean meal (SBM) protein
6 weeks + 5 days → growth and feed utilization when 50 % BDY protein instead of SBM protein [207]
  Nile tilapia S. cerevisiae(0, 25, 50, 75
and 100 %) (BDY protein) instead of soy bean meal (SBM) protein
122 days → growth and feed utilization when 25 % BDY protein instead of SBM protein [208]
  Hybrid striped bass Diet (0, 1, 2 and 4 %) 8 weeks ↑growth and feed efficiency [209]
  Hybrid striped bass Diet (0, 1 and 2 %) 7 weeks (trial 1) and 4 weeks (trial 2) → growth (trial 1) Trial 2
↑ resistance against Streptococcus iniae and extra-cellular superoxide anion
→ growth and feed efficiency
[210]
  Hybrid striped bass Diet (0, 1 and 2 %) 16 and 21 weeks ↑growth, feed efficiency, serum peroxidase and extracellular superoxide anion of head kidney macrophages (16 weeks)
→ resistance against mycobacterial infection
[211]
  Pacu S. cerevisiae (0, 30, 35, 50, 70 and 100 %) (BDY protein) instead of fish meal 54 days ↑growth and feed utilization (until 50 % replacement). Protein retention was higher in fish fed 35 and 50 5 replace-
ment
→ protein digestibility
[212]
  Galilee tilapia 0 and 10g kg-1 6 weeks ↑growth, feed utilization and resistance against waterborne
Cu toxicity
[213]
  Beluga Diet (0, 1 and 2 %) 6 weeks 2 % inclusion
↑final weight, weight gain, SGR and FCR
↑ autochthonous LAB levels
→survival rate, haematological and serum biochemical parameters resist
[97]
Symbols represent an increase (↑) in the specified response; no change (→); decrease (↓); n.i – no information given.
Salmon – Atlantic salmon; Trout – rainbow trout; Coho – Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Turbot – Scophthalmus maximus; Sea bass - Dicentrachus labrax, Snapper
– pink snapper (Pagrus auratus); Flounder – Japanese flounder (Paralychthis olivaceus), Nile tilapia - Oreochromis niloticus; Red drum - Sciaenops ocellatus; Channel
catfish - Ictalurus punctatus
ROS – reactive oxygen species; IHNV – infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus
Table 1: Glucans as immunostimulants in fish, shrimp and scallop.