Resistance to
pathogen
Agent Species Route of
exposure
Length of administration Mechanism of
action/results
References
Aeromonas
hydrophila
Yeast glucan Tilapia and grass carp i.p 14 days ↑ protection in both species and number of NTB-positive staining cells [219]
  Glucan Rohu Oral 7 days ↑ phagocytotic activity, bactericidal activity,
antibody titre and agglutinin level
[220]
  Glucan Rohu i.p 28 days ↑ phagocytotic activity, lysozyme activity,
bactericidal activity, complement activity and resistance
[221]
  Garlic Rohi i.p 10 days ↑superoxide production, lysozyme activity and resistance [222]
  Glucan Catla i.p 30 days ↑ antibody titre and macrophage activating factor [223]
  Glucan from
S. cerevisiae
Carp
(25-30 g)
i.p
(0, 100, 500 and 1000 µg fish-1)
14 days ↑ total leukocyte count and neutrophil and monocytes, increase survival in a challenge experiment with Aeromonas hydrophila [224]
  Glucan from
S. cerevisiae
Carp
(25-30 g)
i.p
(0, 100, 500 and 1000 µg
fish-1)
14 days ↑ total leukocyte count and neutrophil and monocytes, superoxide anion production by kidney macrophages and resistance (500 µg) against A. hydrophila [225]
  β-glucan in
combination
with LPS
Carp
(25-30 g)
i.p, bathing and oral ad-ministration 14 ↑ total blood leukocyte count and neutrophil and monocytes and resistance against A. hydrophila when i.p and oral administration were used [226]
  Levamisole carp Diet (0, 125,
250 and 500 mg kg-1)
70 days ↑ resistance and erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content,
haematocrit, total serum protein, albumin and globulin of fish fed 250 mg kg-1
[227]
  β-glucan and
S. uvarum
Carp i.p 15 days ↑ resistance and serum lysozyme activity [228]
  Glucan Asian
catfish
Oral 30 days ↑ antibody titre and protection [229]
  Glucan Blue gourami i.p (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1) 22 days ↑ chemiluminescent response of head-kidney phagocytic cell isolated from fish i.p with a dose of 20 mg kg-1 and resistance [230]
  Glucan Indian major carp i.p 1 week ↑superoxide production and phagocytic activity resistance unclear [231]
  S. cerevisiae zebrafish i.p (0.5, 2 and 5 mg
ml-1)
6 + 4 days ↑ resistance (5 mg), myelomonocytic cells in kidney and enhanced the ability of kidney cells to kill the pathogen [232]
  S. cerevisiae Nile tilapia Oral (0, 0.25,
0.5, 1, 2 and
5 g kg-1) and
i.p
12 weeks +
10 days
12 weeks
↑ growth, feed utiliza-tion and protein turn-over (1-5 g kg-1) and resistance (5 g kg-1)
[233]
  S. cerevisiae Nile tilapia Oral (2 % autolyzed yeast; 0.3 % cell wall) 70 days ↑thrombocytes and nonspecific acute inflammatory response
↓neutrophils, macro-phages an lymphocytes
[234]
  Green tea
(Camellia sinensis)
Nile tilapia Oral (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 g kg-1) 12 weeks +
10 days (i.p
challenge)
↑ growth and feed utilization (highest at 0.5 G kg-1), haematological and biochemical parameters (0.25-2 g
kg-1) and resistance with increasing inclusion levels
[235]
  Debaryomyces
hansenii
Leopard
grouper
Oral
(106 yeast g-1)
5 weeks ↑ resistance and growth
→ immunological para-meters after 4 weeks
[236]
  Macrogard Tench Oral
(0, 0.5, 1 and 2 g    kg-1)
1 month ↑ resistance and phagocytic activity (1 and 2 g kg-1) [237]
  Schizophyllan Two orna-
mental fish species
i.p (108 cells ml-1) 24 days ↑ resistance against both pathogens [238]
A.hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens Glucan Brook trout i.p and 30 min immersion 4 weeks ↑ resistance (up to 7  days). By day 14 no resistance was reduced [239]
Aeromonas
salmonicida
Macrogard Trout Oral 1 week ↑ MPO activity, phagocytic activity, superoxide production and Ig level [240]
Aeromonas
salmonicida and
Vibrio salmonicida
Laminaran Atlantic salmon i.p (23.6 mg kg-1) 35 days ↑resistance against V. salmonicida
→ resistance against A. salmonicida
[241]
Aphanomyces
invadans
Ergosan Striped snakehead Injected intramuscularly 2 weeks ↑ inhibitory effect of  Serum and macrophage activating factor [57]
Edwardsiella ictaluri Yeast glucan Channel
catfish
i.p  2 weeks ↑ resistance and phagocytic activity [153]
  Glucan Channel
catfish
Oral 2 weeks ↑ macrophage and  neutrophil migration
→ resistance
 
[242]
Edwardsiella
tarda
Glucan Carp i.p 12 days ↑ resistance [152]
  Glucan Rohu i.p 10 days ↑ bactericidal activity
 ↑resistance  
[243]
  Glucan Rohu i.p 28 days ↑ phagocytotic activity, lysozyme activity,
bactericidal activity, complement activity and resistance
[221]
  Glucan -
injections
Rohu i.p 28 days ↑ phagocytotic activity, lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, complement activity and resistance [222]
  Yeast glucan Tilapia and grass carp i.p 14 days ↑ protection in both species and number of NTB-positive staining cells [219]
Pasteurella piscicida Glucan Yellowtail i.p 10 days → resistance [244]
Photobacterium damselae ssp.
piscicida
Glucan Gilthead sea bream Immersion
(107 cells l-1)
10 days ↑ resistance (10 g kg-1)
→ resistance (5 g kg-1)
and phagocytic activity
[245]
Vibrio alginolyticus Glucan White shrimp Oral 120 hours ↑ resistance, phenol- oxidase and respiratory burst [246]
  Glucan Fresh-water prawn Bath exposure with glucan. 4 hours + 1 week immersion with the pathogen ↑ haemocyte lysate supernatant, lysozyme and phosphatase active-ties and increased resistance → total protein content [247]
Vibrio anguillarum Yeast glucan Salmon i.p 20 days ↑ resistance [183]
  High-M alginate Turbot Immersion (105 cells
ml-1)
1 week ↑ resistance [53]
  High-M alginate Atlantic halibut Immersion
(5x105 or 1.4x107 cells ml-1)
Different periods during initial feeding ↑ resistance at the highest dose
→ resistance at lowest dose
[215]
  Cationic cod milt protein Atlantic cod (5 g) Bath challenge
(5x106 cells ml-1)
4 weeks ↑ resistance [248]
Vibrio anguill-arum and Vibrio
campbellii
Glucan from
S. cerevisiae
Gnoto-biotic Artemia Immersion
(5x106 cells ml-1)
6 days ↑ resistance against both pathogens [249]
Vibrio campbellii Glucan from
S. cerevisiae
Artemia Immersion
(5x106cells ml-1)
5 days Protection against Vibrio campbellii when supplied in advance of the challenge [250]
  Glucan from
S. cerevisiae
Artemia Immersion
(5x106 cells ml-1)
6 days ↑ survival and resistance against V. campbellii [251]
Vibrio damsela Yeast glucan Turbot Yeast glucan was used as
adjuvant
42 days ↑ activities of the immune parameters when glucan was injected after the bacterin [252]
Vibrio harvei Glucan Croaker i.p 8 weeks ↑ lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity and
resistance (0.09%)
→ resistance (0.18%)
[253]
Vibrio vulnificus Glucan Tiger shrimp Immerse 43 days ↑ resistance in shrimp treated with 0.5 and 1 mg/ ml glucan but no in groups treated with 0.25 and 2 mg/ ml glucan [194]
Vibrio sp.
90-69B3
Yeast Culture Pacific white shrimp Oral i.p after 4
weeks
↑ resistance [254]
Yersinia ruckeri Yeast glucan Salmon i.p 20 days ↑ resistance [183]
  S. cerevisiae Rainbow
trout
i.p 14 days ↑ resistance, growth, lysozyme and comple-ment activities [255]
Lactococcus garviae Alginate micro-
particles
Trout i.p 3 weeks → resistance [256]
Streptococcus sp. Glucan Yellowtail i.p 10 days ↑ resistance and serum complement
↑ lysozyme activity
[244]
  Sodium alginate Grouper i.p 6 days ↑ lysozyme activity, respiratory bursts,
phagocytic activity and resistance
[257]
Streptococcus
iniae
Glucan Hybrid striped bass Oral 3 weeks → resistance [258]
  Glucan Nile tilapia Oral 14 weeks ↑ resistance when fish were fed 100 and 200 mg glucan [259]
  Glucan Shark Oral 2 weeks ↑ resistance [260]
Virus            
IHNV Glucan Rainbow trout i.p 18 days ↑ resistance
→ respiratory bursts and TNF-α-expression
[39]
WSSV β-1,3-glucan Penaeus monodon Oral
(0 and 2g kg-1)
15 days ↑ resistance [261]
  β-1,3-glucan Penaeus monodon i.p 20 days ↑ resistance and the Immune system [262]
  Marine yeast
(Candida sake)
White prawn Oral (10 %) 40 + 10 days ↑ immunity index and resistance [263]
  Marine yeast
glucan
Penaeus monodon Oral 21 days ↑ resistance, but higher molecular weight and lower degree of branching acts better [264]
Parasite            
Loma morhua Glucan Atlantic cod Oral n.i ↑ lymphocyte density [265]
Loma salmonae β-1,3/1,6
glucan
Rainbow trout i.p (0, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 µg) 10 weeks During week 8-9 post exposure a significant reduction in no. of xenoma-positive fish was noticed. [266]
Symbols represent an increase (↑) in the specified response; no change (→); decrease (↓); n.i – no information given.
i.p – intraperitoneal injection
n.i – no information given
IHNV – infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus
IHNV – infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus
WSSV - White spot syndrome virus
Table 3: Immunostimulants and disease susceptibility in fish and shrimps.