Abbrev. Marker Cellular function
HIF-1α Hypoxia Inducible factor 1 Increases during hypoxia and mediates expression of genes that modulate energy metabolism, angiogenesis and cell survival [5,11].
PDK-1 Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase Inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), blocking conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and preventing access to the citric acid (Krebs) cycle [5].
mTOR Mammalian target of rapamycin Integrates growth signals, energy status and other parameters to control protein synthesis, cellular growth and proliferation [11].
CA-9 Carbonic Anhydrase 9 Transmembrane protein modulates microenvironment pH, up-regulated under hypoxic conditions [10].
HK-2 Hexokinase 2 Phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, trapping it in the cell and feeding glycolysis [5].
pAMPK Phosphorylated AMP activated protein kinase Activated by low levels of ATP, it regulates energy homeostasis by increasing ATP production and stimulating catabolic pathways.
Table 1: Metabolic markers evaluated by immunohistochemistry.