Specific

  • Preferentially (or exclusively) produced in target tissue
  • Able to differentiate pathologies

Sensitive

  • Early indication of disease before clinical symptoms develop
  • Present at low concentrations in controls and exhibits significant increase after injury
  • Long half-life

Diagnostic

  • Proportional to degree of severity of pathology

Prognostic

  • Can predict disease progression

Robust

  • Not confounded by unrelated conditions
  • Rapid, simple, accurate, and inexpensive detection

Translatable

  • Data can be used to bridge pre-clinical and clinical results

Non-invasive

  • Released from tissue into accessible fluid sample
Table 1: Characteristics of an ideal DILI biomarker.