Significant VOCs in breath Sources References
Acetone Glucose metabolism in the human body [48]
Isoprene Mevalonic acid pathway of cholesterol synthesis [32]
Acrolein Exogenous: cooked foods, formed from carbohydrates, vegetable oils and animal fats, amino acids during heating of foods, occupational exposure
Endogenous: myeloperoxidase-mediated degradation of threonine and amine oxidase-mediated degradation of spermine and spermidine (markers for oxidative stress)
Ethanol Exogenous : Alcohol consumption
Endogenous: Several biochemical pathways like fatty acid synthesis, microbial fermentation of the carbohydrates in the gastro-intestinal tract
Acetonitrile Exogenous: Smokers, drug addicts, passive smokers
Cut-off for active smokers established at 20.3 ppb (study based on PTRMS)
Acetaldehyde Endogenous: Local production in upper airway or mouth; metabolism of ethanol [36]
Benzene Exogenous : Passive smoking, occupational [37]
Toluene Exogenous: Occupational, indoor [52]
Table 3: VOCs monitored through BET-PTRMS in the present study