Author and year Hospital and Country Sample size Frequency of predominant
Risk factors (%)
NakibuuKa et al., [31] Mulago, Uganda 108 Hypertension (57.6)
Physical Inactivity (40.6)
Alcohol (18.2)
Diabetes mellitus (12.1)
Deresse and Shaweno, [33] Hawassa, Ethiopia 163 Hypertension (50.9)
Cardiac disease (16.6)
Alcohol (10.4)
Diabetes mellitus (7.4)
Sagui et al., [34] Dakar, Senegal 107 Hypertension (68)
Diabetes mellitus (37.3)
Atrial fibrillation (14.7)
Smoking (13.3)
Atadzhanov et al.,[24] Lusaka, Zambia 162 Hypertension (64)
Alcohol (29.4)
HIV (31.7)
Smoking (15)
Diabetes (12.3)
Sarfo et al.,[35] Kumasi, Ghana 265 Hypertension (85)
Physical Inactivity (73)
Obesity (58)
Hypercholestrolemia (47)
Diabetes mellitus (38)
Mapoure et al.,[36] Douala, Cameroon 325 Hypertension (85)
Alcohol (28.3)
Diabetes mellitus (20.6)
Obesity (18)
Smoking (16.0)
Watila et al.,[37] Maiduguri, Nigeria 524 Hypertension (8.7)
Hypercholestrolemia (15.1)
Diabetes mellitus (10.1)
Alcohol (8.1)
Smoking (6.8)
Urimubenshi,[38] Ruhengeri, Rwanda 204 Hypertension (60.4)
Smoking (14.4)
Diabetes (10.1)
Current study, 2015 KNH, Kenya 307 Hypertension (64.1)
Smoking (19.2)
Alcohol (13.4)
Infection (13.6)
Diabetes mellitus (3.8)
Table 4: Predominant risk factors from hospital studies in sub Saharan Africa.