Progression of tumor
Mechanism Mediator (s)
Enhancement of growth Growth factors (EGF, PDGF, TNF-b)
Cytokines(IL-6, TNF-α)
L-arginine derived polyamine
Enhanced Angiogenesis Through production of various cytokines (GM-CSF, TGF-α, TGF-β, IL-1, IL6,IL8)
Prostanoids (Procogulant activity)
Invasion and Dissemination Cytokines (TNF-α, IL1)
Lytic enzymes (Metaloproteases and plasminogen activator)
Immunosuppression Prostanoids (PGE2), cytokines(IL-10), and other mediators (TNF-b)
Downregulation of the tumor cells
Direct cellular cytotoxicity Cell to cell contact
Antibody-dependent celluar cytotoxicity Fc-receptor(CD16)
Secretory products (cytotoxic/cytostatic) Ecosanoids (PGs, LTS)
Cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α)
Free redicals (R10, NO)
Macrophase induces apoptosis TNF-α, IL-10, R-10, NO
Table 4: TAMS and Tumor Interaction (progression and downregulation) [4].