Biological event

Effectors cells

Brief description

Chemotaxis

Fibroblasts

Local fibroblasts remain dormant in intact skin. Upon injury and growth factors receptors activation, the cells are committed to migrate and anchor with the provisional fibrinoid matrix.

Cell proliferation

Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes

Except inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and keratinocytes which express the EGFR are committed to divide. This contributes to wound fibroplasias, neovascularization and re-epithelialization.

Matrix elaboration

Fibroblasts and myo fibroblasts

EGF stimulates collagen and fibronectin gene expression in activated fibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are also committed in matrix protein secretion and accumulation. This contributed to granulation tissue growth.

Angiogenesis

Endothelial cells

EGF stimulates angiogenesis via EGFR stimulation and through trans activation of other growth factors.

Contraction

Myofibroblasts

EGF enhances the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Smooth muscle actin type alpha fibers are extracellularly deposited which precipitates wound contraction.

Epithelial resurfacing

Keratinocytes

EGF stimulates wound re-epithelialization by stimulating migration of the leading edge cells. Backward located cells proliferate and push forward the advancing cells

Table 2: Events included in cutaneous tissue repair cascade stimulated by EGF.