STEPS CHARACTERISTICS
Loose of cell polarity
  • Loose of E-cadherin (45)
  • Altered expression of integrins (46)
  • Increased expression of N-cadherin (49)
  • Acquirement of motile properties
  • Deregulation of polarity complexes such as Par 3, Par 6 and Scribble (49)
  • Decrease of membrane bound β-catenine and increase of cytosolic β-catenine (11-18)
  • Formation of reactive stroma through increased expression of chemokines (35-39)
  • Degradation of ECM proteins  
  • Increased extracellular proteolysis
  • Imbalance between proteolytic mediators, corresponding receptors, and their specific inhibitors
  • Table 1: The main three steps that characterize the spread of carcinoma cells.